Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 13th Global Summit and Expo on Biomass and Bioenergy Hilton Zurich Airport, Zurich, Switzerland.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Gerrit Brem

University of Twente, The Netherlands

Keynote: Energy and Materials from Biomass Pyrolysis
Conference Series Biomass 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Gerrit Brem photo
Biography:

Gerrit Brem is a professor in Energy Technology and chairman of the Thermal and Fluid department at the University of Twente (NL). He is an expert in the field of thermal conversion processes. For 30 years he was a senior scientist at TNO and in 2009 appointed as a Senior Research Fellow. He has carried out a large number of research and development projects for national and international clients and developed new advanced conversion technologies and demonstrated in practice. He has written over 120 scientific publications and has several patents on his name.

Abstract:

Flash pyrolysis is a thermochemical process to convert carbonaceous materials into oil, gas and char. Examples of carbonaceous materials are biomass and waste streams. Unfortunately, the quality of the present pyrolysis oil from biomass is not good enough for the existing infrastructure. There are in general two catalytic routes to improve the oil quality: deoxygenation or hydrogenation. Deoxygenation will remove the oxygenated compounds from the oil but unfortunately with the removal of oxygen also carbon is removed and thus the oil yield will be reduced. Via hydrogenation additional hydrogen has to be added to improve the oil properties. However, because of the ample presence of oxygen in pyrolysis oil a lot of water is formed and moreover expensive and mostly fossil hydrogen is required. A new idea presented here is aiming at a high-quality oil by simultaneously insitu catalytic deoxygenation and hydrogenation. A next step is the application of flash pyrolysis for the production of both energy (biofuels) and materials. One example is paper sludge consisting of paper fibres and minerals. After drying and flash pyrolysis, the fibres in the paper sludge are transformed into oil and flammable gas and the minerals can be used as a raw material for the paper industry. Moreover, the paper industry can avoid dumping of this waste stream. This process of transforming biomass into fuels and minerals is very promising for all kind of residues such as sewage sludge, manure, packaging material or waste streams. More examples will be given during the presentation. Recent Publications 1. Imran, A., Bramer, E.A., Seshan, K. & Brem, G. 2016, "Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts", Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 117, pp. 236-246. 2. Yukananto, R., Louwes, A.C., Bramer, E.A. & Brem, G. 2016, "Direct and standard injection of sewage sludge in a supercritical gasification system: Optimization of the energy efficiency using pinch analysis", European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, pp. 538. 3. Naqvi, S.R., Prabhakara, H.M., Bramer, E.A., Dierkes, W., Akkerman, R. & Brem, G. 2018, "A critical review on recycling of end-of-life carbon fibre/glass fibre reinforced composites waste using pyrolysis towards a circular economy", Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 136, pp. 118-129 4. Imran, A., Bramer, E.A., Seshan, K. & Brem, G. 2014, "High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate", Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 127, pp. 72-79. 5. Sallevelt, J.L.H.P., Gudde, J.E.P., Pozarlik, A.K. & Brem, G. 2014, "The impact of spray quality on the combustion of a viscous biofuel in a micro gas turbine", Applied Energy, vol. 132, pp. 575-585

  • Bioenergy |Renewable Energy
Location: Meeting Hall -Brussels
Speaker

Chair

Layla Salih Al-Omran

University of Basrah, Iraq

Speaker

Co-Chair

Harri Ali-L÷ytty

Tampere University of Technology, Finland

Speaker
Biography:

Layla Salih Al-Omran is interested in analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants in both biotic and abiotic samples. She has an extensive experience in human exposure assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in indoor dust. She has built this experience during her PhD study at University of Birmingham, UK. The study involves investigating of the most important factors that affects human exposure assessments of legacy and novel brominated flame retardants via indoor dust ingestion, such as spatial and temporal variations, dust particle size, sampling methods, dust loading and organic carbon content. It has been suggested that without taking into account all of these factors, the exposure assessment will not be an entirely representative metric of exposure. This work is a part of her PhD thesis at University of Birmingham UK during 2012-2016. She has published four research papers regarding to these factors.

Abstract:

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are industrial chemicals widely used in consumer products to enhance their ignition resistance. Since in most applications these chemicals are used additively, they can transfer from such products into the environment. The toxicity of some BFRs has led to concern about human exposure. Ingestion of indoor settled dust appears to represent a major pathway of exposure to BFRs. However, assessment of human exposure is rendered uncertain because of a lack of knowledge about spatial and temporal variation, dust particle size and sampling collection method. Thus, the study aims to investigate the most important factors influencing human exposure assessments of BFRs via indoor dust ingestion. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were measured in 305 indoor dust samples from different homes in Birmingham, UK. Our results revealed that substantial withinroom and within-home spatial variability in BFR concentrations was apparent between two floor areas and between elevated surface and floor dust, due to the varying distances of sampled surfaces from potential BFR sources. BFR concentrations in elevated surface dust exceeded significantly those in floor dust from the same rooms. Considerable within-room and withinhome temporal variability in BFR concentrations was apparent over a nine month sampling period, that is likely attributable to changes in room contents. Exposure estimates based on analysis of a dust sample taken from one specific floor area at one specific point in time may not be entirely representative of human exposure in that room. While concentrations of higher brominated compounds did not differ significantly between different dust particle size fractions, those of lower brominated compounds were significantly higher in the finest particle size, underlining the importance of selecting the most appropriate dust particle size for the purpose of exposure assessment. BFR concentrations in researcher-collected dust were higher than those in household vacuum dust. Recent Publications 1. Bj´┐Żrklund, J A, U Sellstrom, C A de Wit, M Aune, S Lignell and P O Darnerud (2012) Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples. Indoor Air 22(4):279-288. 2. Cao Z G, G Yu, Y S Chen, Q M Cao, H Fiedler, S B Deng, J Huang and B Wang (2012) Particle size: a missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust. Environment International 49:24-30. 3. Fang M and H M Stapleton (2014) Evaluating the bioaccessibility of flame retardants in house dust using an in vitro tenax bead-assisted sorptive physiologically based method. Environmental Science & Technology 48(22):13323-13330. 4. Mercier F, P Glorennec, O Thomas and B Le Bot (2011) Organic contamination of settled house dust, a review for exposure assessment purposes. Environmental Science & Technology 45(16):6716-6727. 5. Muenhor D and S Harrad (2012) Within-room and within-building temporal and spatial variations in concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust. Environment International 47:23-27.

Biography:

Narendra Mohan, after completing his Post-graduation in Sugar Technology carried out his studies further for award of Fellowship of National Sugar Institute. He has a long and distinguished career of working in sugar industry and at the institute. As Director of National Sugar Institute, Kanpur he has carried out exemplary work in bringing a radical change in the academic, research and consultancy activities of the institute and making its presence felt globally. Besides being an excellent, popular and inspiring teacher, he has been a research worker par excellence who has published more than 75 papers in various international and national journals. His passion for innovative work to covert waste to resource resulted in development of many cost effective and environment friendly technologies. He has been conferred with many prestigious awards including Excellence in Science by Hon’ble President of India.

Abstract:

Although India is regaining its number 2 position as far as sugar production is concerned and during the current crushing season has already produced a little above 30 MMT of sugar from sugarcane, sustainability of the sugar factories has always remained a matter of concern. In last three years, the variation in sugar production has been from about 20.2 MMT to 30 MMT (almost 50%). Such up and down of the sugar production is cyclic in nature distorting the demand-supply equilibrium and at times the downfall in the sugar prices adversely affect the profitability of the sugar factories to such an extent that it becomes impossible for them to make sugarcane price payment. To circumvent the situation to some extent through value addition and to address environmental issues as well, bagasse based cogeneration has gained favor in India. For current production of about 30 MMT of sugar, about 280 MMT of sugar cane is expected to be crushed by the sugar factories. Only about 60% (the stalk) of sugarcane plant is supplied to the factory and balance 40% (the SPR; sugarcane plant residue) remains in the field itself. This 40% on dry mass has considerable amount of bio-energy which is not being used properly and in fact, wasted by way of burning in the fields which also pollutes the atmosphere as indicated by high suspended particulate matter (SPM) values. While efforts are being made for returning 50% of the biomass (SPR), through trash mulching to improve soil fertility and conserve moisture, the remaining 50% of this biomass can be utilized efficiently for production of bioelectricity in the existing cogeneration units along with the bagasse for adding value to the system and providing clean and green form of renewable energy in place of fossil fuel based power generation. Recent Publications 1. Waste to Resource Published in Proceeding of ???75th Annual Convention of Sugar Technologists??? Association of India, 2016. 2. Green Energy for the Indian Sugar Industry: a Sustainable Energy Future??? published in the proceedings of ???IAPSIT 2018??? held at Udan Thoni, Thailand. 3. Biomass Energy; a Step Towards Economic and Environmental Sustainability in India??? published in proceedings of ???International Congress on Sugar and Sugarcane Derivatives- Diversification 2017???, held at La Habana, Cuba. 4. Role of bagasse drying in controlling Uttar Pradesh Power Crisis??? Published in ???Akshaya Urja???, August 2015, a publication from Govt. of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. 5. Diversification for Sustainability of the Sugar Industry??? presented during the ???23rd Asia International Conference??? held in November, 2017 at Jakarta, Indonesia.

Biography:

Dr. Ali-Löytty has completed his PhD in physics in 2013 from Tampere University of Technology, Finland. After graduation, he visited SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University, California as postdoctoral scholar. Dr. Ali-Löytty is specialized in surface science research utilizing synchrotron light mediated methods, and he is a board member of the Finnish Synchrotron Radiation Users' Organization. Currently, Dr. Ali-Löytty holds a research post as Postdoctoral Researcher at the Academy of Finland focusing on research on photonic materials for solar fuel production

Abstract:

Solar fuels could resolve the increasing demand for energy in future if only materials solutions capable for high solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiency at cheap price are found. Solar fuels can be produced in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) that consist of electrodes made of photoactive materials that are coated with electrocatalyst materials. Currently, the STF efficiency of PECs is largely limited by the lack of efficient electrocatalyst materials. Limiting reaction steps include the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) and the CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR), which are crucial for solar hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuel production using only sunlight, water and carbon dioxide as raw materials. Operando analysis of reaction intermediates at the solid-liquid interface provides fundamental understanding of catalytic reaction mechanisms and structure-activity/ selectivity relationships, which can guide the design of superior electrocatalysts. At present, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) probing of the solid-liquid interface is limited to electrochemical operation at rather low current densities. Recently, ???tender??? X-ray Ambient Pressure XPS and a dip-and-pull electrochemical cell depicted in the Fig. 1 were utilized to study Ni???Fe electrocatalyst at different potentials [1]. The approach allowed operando measurements just above the onset of OER. A two-dimension model was used to describe the spatial distribution of electrochemical potential, current density and pH as a function of the position above the electrolyte meniscus and to provide guidance towards enabling the acquisition of operando XPS at high current density. The current density of 10 mA/cm2 is the desired operation condition in photoelectrochemical devices. New electrochemical cell designs and early results allowing higher current densities will be presented. Recent Publications 1. Ali-L´┐Żytty, H. et al. Ambient-Pressure XPS Study of a Ni???Fe Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction. J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 2247???2253 (2016). 2. Hannula, M., Ali-L´┐Żytty H. et al. Improved stability of ALD grown amorphous TiO2 photoelectrode coatings by thermally induced oxygen defects. Chemistry of Materials, in Press. 3. Ali-L´┐Żytty, H. et al. The role of (FeCrSi)2(MoNb)-type Laves phase on the formation of Mn-rich protective oxide scale on ferritic stainless steel. Corrosion Science, in Press. 4. Hannula, M. et al. Fabrication of topographically microstructured titanium silicide interface for advanced photonic applications. Scripta Materialia 119, 76???81 (2016). 5. Ali-L´┐Żytty, H. et al. Grain orientation dependent Nb???Ti microalloying mediated surface segregation on ferritic stainless steel. Corrosion Science 112, 204???213 (2016).

Biography:

Touria BARRADI graduated from the Hassania School of Public Works (EHTP) option electricity, she was the first female engineer graduated from the school, and major of its promotion. In 1980, Touria Barradi-El Alami won the state engineering diploma from the Ecole Supérieure d'Electrique in Paris (Supelec), option energetic systems, nuclear energy. Once again, she is major of her promotion and first Moroccan winner of the school. In 1990, she obtained a doctorate of State of the Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine (INPL) of Nancy, in electrical engineering (honorable mention). Touria Barradi-El Alami taught for 15 years at the EHTP, where she was professor-researcher. She has also been involved in training, at the doctoral cycle at the Pierre and Marie Curie University, and carries out consulting engineering assignments for some companies. Prof. Touria BARRADI is using its academic and professional capital to strengthen the University - Company partnership.

Abstract:

Sustainable pace of growth in electricity demand, high energy dependency and predominance of fossil fuels, led Morocco to undertake an ambitious, innovative and voluntarist National Energy Strategy on going with an emphasis on renewable energies (RE) [1]. The valorization of its high solar and potential [2] and the development of its interconnections predispose it to become an electricity hub in North and West Africa, and a potential partner of the EU. Initiated in the 1980s by a policy of dam construction, the energy transition has been reinforced during the last decade with the solar and wind contributions. Multiple challenges are addressed: the electrification rate is 100% in urban areas and is gradually approaching this value in rural areas [3], energy dependency decreased from 98% in 2009 to less than 93% this year, aiming to reach 82% in 2030 and the first solar Kwh was injected into the transmission grid in 2016, from the NOORo complex, considered the largest multitechnology solar site in the world [4]. The implementation of 10 GW leads the RE integration rate in the energy mix to reach 52% by 2030, making a historic turning point where the share of renewable electricity will exceed the share of fossil electricity [5]. A specific legislative, regulatory and institutional framework has also been implemented. The flexibility of the electric system and the reduction of RE intermittencies is achieved through the Energy Transfer Station by Pumping (ETSP), the CCGT and international interconnexions. Biomass and biogas benefit from the important agricultural residue and the abundance of organic components in the waste. In line with its commitment towards the climate, public health and the reduction of atmospheric emissions, Morocco intends to develop specific programs dedicated to process solid and liquid effluents [6´┐Ż]. The energy efficiency is also an important pillar of the Moroccan energy strategy, contributing to save 5% of the energy consumed by 2020 and 20% by 2030. The primary targeted sectors are transport, building, industry, agriculture and public lighting [7]. The intervention will give an overview of these main programs and projects with a social-economic impact. Recent Publications 1. Moroccan National Energy Strategy, Ministry of Energy Water Mines and Environment (2009) 2. Atlas of renewable energies in Morocco, ADEREE (2012) 3. Rural Electrification Program (PERG), one.org.ma 4. Moroccan Agency of Sustainable Energy (2016) 5. Ministry of Energy Mines and Sustainable Development, "Moroccan Energy Strategy" (2018)

Aude Bertrandias

Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Paris-Saclay, France

Title: Producing energy through gases from biomass
Biography:

Aude Bertrandias is an R&D engineer at the Research Center Paris-Saclay of Air Liquide. She is part of the Life Science Department, which develops innovative solutions for biotechnology, food and beverage applications and pharmaceuticals. Her main topics of research concern the improvement of biogas production, from both a quantitative and qualitative point of view. She also works on other subjects, linked to bioprocessing. Her background as an engineer in life science and PhD in process engineering enable her to approach bioprocessing projects with a dual perspective.

Abstract:

Biomass is renewable biological matter (e.g. wood, crops, algae, food waste???), which can be processed to generate targeted biomolecules, biomaterials or bioenergy. Bioenergy can be stored as bioethanol or biodiesel, which are commonly known liquid fuels obtained from biomass. But, bioenergy can also be stored under the form of gases, in particular biomethane and biohydrogen, which can be used for mobility. In this presentation, we focus on biomethane.Biogas is a mixture of gases, composed mainly of methane (~55%) and CO2 (~45%). It is formed by the anaerobic microbiological conversion of organic matter. Biogas can be upgraded into biomethane, which may then be used for mobility (heavy goods vehicles, maritime transportation). In 2014, the European Commission recommended to develop European-wide CNG and LNG filling station infrastructures by launching the ???Clean Fuel Strategy???. Improvement of the biomethane production process is thus key to deploy clean transportation through biobased CNG and LNG. [1] To improve biomethane production, developments are needed to increase biogas production, reduce operating costs and optimize biogas upgrading. Several technologies can be considered for each. In this presentation, we focus on increasing biogas production through lignocellulosic degradation by biological pre-treatments. Indeed, agricultural waste is difficult to digest due its generally high content in lignocellulose. [2],[3] Agricultural waste is critical since it will represent 90% of the available feedstock for anaerobic digestion in France in 2030, according to an ADEME report. [4] We will also present the latest achievements in membrane permeation technology employed in Air Liquide upgrading units. Formulation of the polymers used in membranes can be improved to have a higher selectivity and at the same time, a higher permeance of CO2. [5],[6] The right combination of selectivity and permeance can decrease operating or capital costs. Recent Publications 1. EU directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure 2. Schroyen et al. (2015), "Effect of enzymatic pretreatment of various lignocellulosic substrates on production of phenolic compounds and biomethane potential", Bioresource Techno. Vol. 192, pp. 696-702 3. Cater et al. (2014), Methods for Improving Anaerobic Lignocellulosic Substrates Degradation for Enhanced Biogas Production, Springer Science Reviews, Vol. 2 (1???2), pp. 51???61 4. ADEME (2013), ???Estimation des gisements potentiels de substrats utilisables en m´┐Żthanisation???, 117 p. 5. Lin and Yavari (2015), ???Upper bound of polymeric membranes for mixed-gas CO2/CH4 separations???, Journal of Membrane Sci. Vol. 475, pp. 101-109

Biography:

Naimi Youssef has his expertise in the felds of renewable energies, and particularly in biomass, fuel cells, and environment. He is Full Professor at Sciences Faculty of Ben M’sik, the University of Hassan II of Casablanca. He is a Vice-President of association, The Moroccan Society for Advancement of Renewable Energy (SMADER), Coordinator of the course "Chemistry of the Environment" License Materials Science Chemistry (SMC), responsible for the Specialized Master "Renewable Energy and Material".

Abstract:

Throughout this article, we will present, in the case of the controlled discharge of Fes which first at the national level is it, even on the level of Africa, It makes it possible to control all the effluents, while preserving the environment of the city. The discharge it is the state of the places of production of electrical energy and thermal energy by the cogeneration. The current production of household wastes in urban environment in Morocco is at 5.3 million tons a year, and in rural environment 1.47 million tons a year. With population growth, rapid urbanization and changes in consumption patterns, household waste production in Morocco is increasing. The rate of setting in controlled discharge is of 35%, this rate will have to reach 64% after the opening of several controlled discharges, which are in the course of construction [2]. Household waste in Morocco contains 65%-75% organic matter, so landfills in Morocco are one of the sources of biomass. According to the calculations of the energy potential of biomass, we can deduce that the amount of electricity that could produce by incineration of household waste from the Rabat region is about more hundred gigawatt-hours [3]. In this study, we used several techniques of calculation and modeling: ??? IBM - Software SPSS, ??? Technique of calculation for waste tonnage on the level the controlled discharge of Fes, ??? Software Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) version 3.02 of the USEPA, ??? Equation potential of production of electrical energy starting from the methane recovery of the discharge, ??? Equation of the thermal power released by the thermal engines of generator. We will show that the quantity of the electrical energy estimated by the methanation of household wastes of the discharge of Fes is 65.5 GWh/year, and then these quantities are currently available to the level of the discharge of Fes. This alternative allows a reduction of tonnage of accumulated waste. Recent Publications 1. Funds of Communal Equipment in Morocco and the World Bank, ???Diagnosis of the System of Environmental Evaluation in Morocco???, August 17th 2011, p.11-77 2. Delegated minister In charge of the Morocco Environment, ???Current situation of waste management domestic and compared to Morocco???, Organization of the 24th meeting of the National committee of the PNDM on October 2th, 2013 3. Y. Naimi, M. Saghir, A. Cherqaoui, B. Chatre, Energetic recovery of biomass in the region of Rabat, Morocco, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 42, Issue 2, 12 January 2017, Pages 1396-1402.Lin and Yavari (2015), ???Upper bound of polymeric membranes for mixed-gas CO2/CH4 separations???, Journal of Membrane Sci. Vol. 475, pp. 101-109

  • Pyrolyis| Bioeconomy
Location: Meeting Hall -Brussels

Chair

John Robinson

University of Nottingham, UK

Biography:

Stephen J Mitchual an energetic and enthusiastic Wood Technologist who holds MSc and PhD in Wood Science and Technology. I have over the years past conducted extensive research in the area of sawmilling and biomass energy, and have published extensively in international journals. I have also successfully taught causes in Wood Technology and other related discipline at both Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels during my 13 years working experience with the University of Education, Winneba. Currently, I am the Dean of the Faculty of Technical Education. The opportunity to learn new skills and work with new technologies is particularly attractive to me. Finally, I am a dynamic individual with excellent team working and communication skills. I am also able to relate to a wide range of people.

Abstract:

This study assessed the fuel characteristics of briquettes made from sawdust of C. pentandra and oil palm mesocarp fibre at room temperature, using low compacting pressure without a binder. Properties of briquettes studied included: stability in diameter and length; relaxed density; compressive strength; impact resistance index; gross calorific value; volatile matter; ash content and elemental composition. These properties were determined using standard laboratory methods. The results showed that for all compacting pressure levels the stability in diameter and length of the briquettes produced decreased with increasing proportion of oil palm mesocarp fibre in the mixing ratio while increase in compacting pressure resulted in increased relaxed density. All the briquettes produced from blends of C. pentandra and oil palm mesocarp fibre had compressive strength lower than those produced from pure C. pentandra. However, compacting pressures of 40 MPa and 50 MPa produced briquettes with adequate compressive strength irrespective of mixing ratios. Additionally, all the briquettes produced from blends of C. pentandra and oil palm mesocarp fibre had adequate impact resistance index ranging from 120%-350% (IRI>100%). At 5% level of significance, the compacting pressure and mixing proportion had significant effect on the stability in length and diameter, relaxed density, compressive strength and impact resistance index of briquettes produced. The gross calorific values of C. pentandra and oil palm mesocarp fibre were found to be 20.33 MJ/kg and 19.50 MJ/kg respectively. The low ash, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur contents of the biomass materials used for the study makes them eco-friendly. Therefore, binder free briquettes with adequate physical, mechanical and thermal properties could be produced from a blend of C. pentandra sawdust and oil palm mesocarp fibre at room temperature using low compacting pressure. Recent Publications 1. Okai R, Banful E A and Mitchual S J (2016) Dynamics of lumber production from buttressed-stumps of logging residues using a fuel powered horizontal mobile bandsaw machine. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering doi:10.17265/2162-5298/2016.02.004 2. Mitchual S J, Donkoh M and Bih F (2015) Assessment of safety practices and injuries associated with wood processing in a timber company in Ghana. Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.51002. 3. Mitchual S J, Donkoh M and Bih F (2015) Awareness and willingness to utilize health and safety measures among workers of a timber processing firm in Ghana. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 6(3):178-188. 4. Mitchual S J (2015) Enhancing the physical properties of briquettes from sawdust of Piptadenia africana through combination with Ceiba pentandra. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12315. 5. Mitchual S J, Frimpong-Mensah K and Darkwa N A (2014) Evaluation of fuel properties of six tropical hardwood species for briquettes. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems 4(1):1-9.

Biography:

Mr. Martin Clemesha graduated as a materials science engineer at the Polytechnic School of São Paulo University in 2001 and has a post-graduation degree in Packaging Engineering. Along his 15 years carrier, he has provided technical support to Customers in several segments in Brazil, South America and Europe. As market development engineer, he worked on projects involving the replacement of traditional materials in the paint packaging and medical packaging industries. Today in a more commercial role, his aim is to serve current customers and open new opportunities for Braskem’s I’m GreenTM polyethylene in Europe.

Abstract:

This lecture intends to introduce Braskem???s sugar cane based polyethylene. Polyethylene derived from sugarcane based ethanol, produced in the center south region of Brazil, has a negative carbon footprint, meaning that from cradle to factory gate, the biobased PE captures more carbon from the atmosphere than its production chain releases. The development of a traditional polymer that is recyclable and from renewable resources represents a step forward towards a bio-circular economy. Other important aspects such as sustainable sourcing, land use issues and some examples of applications will be shown. Finally, a glance to Braskem???s R&D programs in the renewable chemicals field will be shared.

Swati Sharma

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

Title: Waste-derived carbon: structure, properties and applications
Biography:

Dr. Swati Sharma currently leads the Advanced Carbon Materials and Devices research group at the Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. Her research is focused on pyrolysis optimization for polymers from different chemical classes for obtaining carbons with pre -defined properties. These carbon materials are then used for various applications ranging from miniaturized devices to the bulk manufacture of composites. She is involved in various international collaborative projects aimed at large-scale waste treatment, and has organized meetings and workshops to facilitate a common platform to scientists working on different aspects of waste disposal and treatment. Her interests include finding novel applications of pyrolytic carbon and efficient scale-up of this technology to make it commercially more profitable.

Abstract:

Pyrolysis or controlled heating of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers is an emerging technique for their safe decomposition and possible recycle. The mixture of volatile products resulting from pyrolysis is typically collected as the ???syngas???, which is further separated by distillation into gaseous products to be used as fuels and precursors for the synthesis of various high molecular weight organic compounds. However, one major challenge associated with waste polymer pyrolysis is the handling of the residual solid byproducts, often designated as ???ash???. In our group we develop novel pathways to pyrolyze polymers such that the solid residues are useable forms of elemental carbon rather than ashes. Depending on the surface properties and the extent of crystallinity these carbon materials are further classified as glassy or activated. While activated carbon, often obtained from cellulosic materials such as papers waste, is employed in various industry-scale adsorber and filtration applications; glassy carbon is extensively used in miniaturized devices such as micro/ nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/ NEMS), battery and supercapacitor anodes, sensors and cell culture scaffolds owing to the fact that it can be derived from lithographically patterned polymers. This talk will be focused on various aspects of pyrolytic carbons including (i) the structure-property relationship in pyrolytic carbons at bulk and nano-scale, (ii) influence of pyrolysis conditions on the microstructure of resulting carbon, (iii) characterization and classification of carbon obtained from polymers of different chemical classes, and (iv) unconventional applications of pyrolytic carbons. Pyrolysis efficiency, state-of-the-art characterization techniques such as in situ electron microscopy will also be touched upon. Recent Publications 1. Erwin Fuhrer, Anne B´┐Żcker, Stephanie Kraft, Friederike J. Gruhl, Matthias Kirsch, Neil MacKinnon, Jan G. Korvink, Swati Sharma. 3D Carbon Scaffolds for Neural Stem Cell Culture and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2017, 1700915. 2. Anna Zakhurdaeva, Philipp-Immanuel Dietrich, Hendrik H´┐Żlscher, Christian Koos, Jan G. Korvink, Swati Sharma. Custom-Designed Glassy Carbon Tips for Atomic Force Microscopy. Micromachines, 8(9), 2017, 285. 3. Swati Sharma, Arpad Rostas, Neil MacKinnon, Stefan Weber, Jan Korvink. Micro and nano patternable magnetic carbon. Journal of Applied Physics, 120, 2016, 235107. 4. Gerald G´┐Żring, Philipp-Immanuel Dietrich, Matthias Blaicher, Swati Sharma, Jan G. Korvink, Thomas Schimmel, Christian Koos, Hendrik H´┐Żlscher. Tailored probes for atomic force microscopy fabricated by two-photon polymerization. Applied Physics Letters, 109, 2016, 063101. 5. Swati Sharma, Neil MacKinnon, Vlad Badilita, Sebastian Kiss, Lorenzo Bordonali, Jan Korvink. Carbon MEMS for Magnetic Resonance. In ???Carbon: The Next Silicon????, Momentum Press, LLC, New York USA, 2016.

Biography:

Moritz von Cossel is a Research Associate and Doctoral candidate at the Department of Biobased Products and Energy Crops at Hohenheim University. Before studying, he trained to become a vegetable grower at Germany’s largest vegetable farm, Behr AG where he gained first knowledge on basic agricultural practices and both chances and challenges of diverse cropping systems. After receiving his Master’s degree in Crop Science from Kiel University, he moved to southern Germany and started his research on both temporal and spatial diversification measures in biogas cropping systems at Hohenheim University. Over the past four years, he has participated in the GOBI project (General Optimization of Biogas Processes) and revealed valuable insights to the cultivation of amaranth and perennial wild plant mixtures for biogas production. Currently, he is working on low-input agricultural practices for industrial crops cultivation on marginal lands across Europe (EU-28 and Ukraine) as part of the MAGIC project.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Today, agriculture is facing fundamental ecosystemic crisis such as pollinator losses and land degradation mainly driven by both climate change and declining landscape heterogeneity. Consequently, industrial crops cultivation (ICC) key element of a growing bioeconomy - should both avoid competition with food crops cultivation (FCC) and take environmental aspects into account. In Germany however, ICC for biogas production is still characterized by only a few biogas substrates such as maize or whole crop cereal silage prevalently using non marginal areas strongly competing with FCC. This study reassesses agricultural diversification of ICC to support agrobiodiversity especially considering low-input practices on marginal lands. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Several field trials with amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) and perennial wild plant mixtures (WPM) were conducted at three sites in southwest Germany from years 2014 to 2017. Lab scale biogas yield assessments were conducted with milled dry matter samples. Findings: The diversification of biogas crop rotation systems with amaranth was found promising for increasing ecosystemic functioning of ICC for biogas production. Amaranth provides high amounts of nectar, an essential ecosystemic service towards biodiversity conservation. Additionally, amaranth showed comparable suitability for legume intercropping to maize. However, both better agronomic knowledge and genotypes are required to improve its performance. WPM cultivation showed highest potential for biodiversity conservation due to its high species diversity and long-term soil cover. High biomass yields (> 20 t ha 1) were observed under marginal growth conditions. The long term performance of WPM could be improved using maize as nurse crop in the establishment year. However, low yield stability and variable biogas substrate quality render crucial challenges for practical implementations of WPM. Conclusion & Significance: This study reports promising temporal and spatial agricultural diversification measures for more environmentally benign industrial crop cultivation and derives basic recommendations for further investigations. Recent Publications 1. Von Cossel, M., M??´┐Żhring, J., Kiesel, A. and Lewandowski, I. (2017) Methane yield performance of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) and its suitability for legume intercropping in comparison to maize (Zea mays L.). Industrial Crops & Products 103: 107-121. Doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.03.047. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.03.047 [Accessed June 11, 2018]. 2. Von Cossel, M. and Lewandowski, I. (2016) Perennial wild plant mixtures for biomass production: Impact of species composition dynamics on yield performance over a five-year cultivation period in southwest Germany. European Journal of Agronomy 79: 74-89. Doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2016.05.006. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2016.05.006. 3. Von Cossel, M., M??´┐Żhring, J., Kiesel, A. and Lewandowski, I. (2018) Optimization of specific methane yield prediction models for biogas crops based on lignocellulosic components using non-linear and crop-specific configurations. Industrial Crops & Products 120: 330-342. Doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.04.042. URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.04.042 [Accessed June 11, 2018]. 4. Von Cossel, M., Steberl, K., M??´┐Żhring, J., Kiesel, A., Lewandowski, I. (2017) Etablierungsverfahren mehrj??´┐Żhriger Biogas- Wildpflanzenmischungen im Vergleich: Ohne Mais geht´┐Ż????s nicht? Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft f??´┐Żr Pflanzenbauwissenschaften (Witzenhausen: Liddy Halm), 58´┐Ż????59. Available at: https://www.gpw.uni-kiel.de/de/jahrestagung/tagungsbaende/ tagungsband-2017 [Accessed June 11, 2018]. 5. Elbersen, B., van Eupen, M., Mantel, S., Alexopoulou, E., Bai, Z., Boogaard, H., Carrasco, J., Ceccarelli, T., Ciria Ramos, C., Ciria, P., Cosentino, S.L., Elbersen, W., Eleftheriadis, I., Fritz, S., Gabrielle, B., Iqbal, Y., Lewandowski, I., McCallum, I., Monti, A., Mucher, S., Scordia, D., Verzandervoort, S., von Cossel, M., Zanetti, F. (2018) Mapping marginal land potentially available for industrial crops in Europe. Conference: EUBCE 2018 - 26th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. Copenhagen. 2018. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325272893_Mapping_Marginal_ land_potentially_available_for_industrial_crops_in_Europe [Accessed June 11, 2018].

John Robinson

University of Nottingham, UK

Title: Scalable concepts for microwave pyrolysis
Biography:

John Robinson is an Associate Professor in Chemical & Environmental Engineering at the University of Nottingham. His expertise is in the development and scaleup of microwave heating processes and has taken several processes from a laboratory scale curiosity to a commercial operation. His current research interests are based on understanding the opportunities and advantages for microwave heating within the bioenergy and biorefinery field and developing scalable processes for the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

Abstract:

Microwave pyrolysis of biomass has long been recognized to provide potential opportunities for producing a range of bio-based products. Unlike conventional heating, microwave heating occurs through the interaction of biomass with electromagnetic energy, with the biomass heated volumetrically by energy conversion instead of conventional heat transfer mechanisms. With microwave heating pyrolysis can be achieved within a cold surrounding environment, a feat that is not possible with conventional heating processes. This unique phenomenon presents a number of opportunities for processing of biomass feed stocks, which include enhanced product quality and a significantly simplified process flow sheet, both of which improve the economic viability of industrial biomass processing. Examples of the benefits of microwave heating include the elimination of size-reduction and particulate removal steps and simplification of inert-gas preparation and recycling systems. These are discussed within the paper, along with the enhanced product quality that can be produced as a result. Previous studies in this field have typically made use of fixed bed reactors, in which heating heterogeneity issues and undesired thermal run away of the biomass are inherent. This paper presents five alternative and scalable microwave processing concepts which have already proven to successfully operate at scale, within an industrial environment. The potential application of these concepts for biomass processing and their ability to deliver a step-change in product quality and flow sheet simplification is discussed within the paper. Recent Publications 1. C S Lee et al., (2018) Techno-economic assessment of scale-up of bio-flocculant extraction and production by using okra as biomass feedstock. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 132:358-369. 2. B Shepherd et al., (2018) Microwave pyrolysis of biomass within a liquid medium. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2018.07.004. 3. Y Zhang et al., (2018) Impact of oil composition on microwave heating behavior of heavy oils. Energy and Fuels 32(2):1592- 1599. 4. E T Kostas et al., (2017) The application of microwave heating in bioenergy: A review on the microwave pre-treatment and upgrading technologies for biomass. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 77:12-27. 5. D Beneroso et al., (2017) Microwave pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production: Scalable processing concepts. Chemical Engineering Journal 316(1):481-498.

  • Posters
Location: Meeting Hall -Brussels

Chair

Christophe Len

UniversitÚ de CompiŔgne, France

Biography:

Jasmiina Haverinen, (Project researcher, M.Sc. )in the Kajaani University Consortium, Unit of Measurement Technology (MITY), which operates under University of Oulu, Finland. She has been working in the bio fermentation, food, and environmental sectors co-operating closely with companies.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Biogas process monitoring help to maintain stable process and costs of basic monitoring are often much lower than the costs with re-establishing a destabilised plant. Reactor acidification through reactor overload is one of the most common reasons for process deterioration in anaerobic digesters (ADs): A build-up of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) decrease pH and result in toxic conditions. Ammonia ensure supply of nitrogen as nutrient for biomass and increase system's bu??er capacity, but elevated NH4 concentration causes toxic e??ects. To obtain accurate monitoring results, sampling, sample pre-treatment need to be controlled. This may be a challenge when plant is located far away from the laboratory. In this study, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) was utilized in the analysis of individual VFAs, ammonium, and nutrients (K, Ca, Mg) from the AD samples obtained from biogas factory. On-site monitoring of the analytes was performed to obtain fast analysis and minor sample storage and transportation times. In addition, longer chain fatty acids and bacterial profiles of the samples were studied. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Samples were collected in biogas plant consisting three separate mesofilic AD reactors (4000 m3 each) where the main feedstock was swine slurry together with complex mixture of agricultural plant and animal wastes. Samples were diluted in water prior to CE analysis. The effect of sample storage in RT and -18C was studied. Long chain fatty acids were analysed by GC-MSD. Bacterial profiles were analysed based on their DNA (16SrDNA). Findings: Acetic acid decreased fast when sample was stored in a room temperature. Correlation was observed between VFAs and long chain FAs concentrations as well as bacterial profiles. Conclusion & Significance: CE was utilized successfully and is attractive method for the analysis of separate VFAs, NH4 and nutrients in the biogas production site. Samples should be analysed in the sampling date if stored in RT or freezed for longer storage time.

Biography:

Benjamin Shepherd is a 2nd year PhD Researcher at the University of Nottingham working under the supervision of Dr. John Robinson and Dr. Liam Ball. After obtaining a MEng degree in Chemical Engineering in 2015 from the University of Nottingham, he decided to pursue research. His current research focuses on the development of a novel microwave pyrolysis system that employs superior temperature control using inert liquid instead of gas. He performs a combination of theoretical and empirical research in order to help underpin the process envelope for this new system.

Abstract:

Pyrolysis is the thermochemical decomposition of biomass under inert conditions, into gas, oil and char. Microwavepyrolysis, which offers direct inherent heating advantages not provided by conventional heating, is an expanding area of research. However, concerns exist with current state-of-the-art of microwave-pyrolysis systems used by researchers, as they typically have low intensity microwave-fields, are arcing-prone and require a significant amount of inert gas. As such, currently there is limited energy mass-balance information available due to the nature of these microwave reactors, which is fundamentally needed to support the scalability potential of microwave-pyrolysis. In an effort to overcome the aforementioned issues, a solvent inerted microwave-pyrolysis process has been developed and is presented here, offering benefits over gas microwave-pyrolysis. These include: prevention of thermal-runaway as the solvent maintains the biomass between 300-500´┐ŻC due to increased thermal transfer, prevention of volatile secondary degradation reactions, provides heterogeneous heatingprofiles enabling larger samples to be processed. An inerting gas is not needed as volatiles are quenched directly into the solvent, yielding bio-oil, reducing gas capture requirements and lowering process unit-costs. This presentation will focus on the screening of nine solvents used to inert the pyrolysis of sycamore feedstock in a microwave-system, based on microwave transparency/absorbency, boiling points, cost, environmental safety. Preliminary findings suggested that energy requirements for pyrolysis are not significantly increased, selective depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose is possible, pyrolysis liquid yields can be as high as 70% of the bulk mass loss from the sample, and results fall in line with mathematic models. This allows for potential of scale-up, and different pyrolysis liquid compositions to be compared to conventional and gas-inerted microwave-pyrolysis. Future research and development, including: establishing how the solvent choice affects phase separation, identification of key components in the oil and further processing scale-up, mass and energy balances and mathematical models will also be discussed in this presentation.

Biography:

Deivison Silveira Santos de Jesus Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering and Automotive Industrial Systems, Postgraduate in Reliability Engineering, Control and Automation Engineer, Electro technical Technician. He has professional experience in the area of management of electrical maintenance in industrial equipment and quality engineering in the automotive area. It is also Black Belt certifying 7 Green Belt in the year 2017 .

Abstract:

The increasing pollution in the atmospheric layer has meant world-wide temperature variations, causing the melting of icecaps and floods, among other environmental factors. This change in temperature has been mainly caused by the indiscriminate emission of CO2, especially due to the rising number of vehicles in circulation. Researchers have identified that, among other types of fuel, diesel has the highest level of CO2 emission. Hence the need for the development of biodiesel, produced from oleaginous plants, aimed at reducing the emission of this harmful gas into the atmosphere, besides using renewable resources. However, as in any automation process, it is necessary to have sensors, actuators and controllers, which together perform the automation and control of the production process. Besides that, there are other process variables to be accounted for, such as temperature, flow and level. Considering such concept, and within the academic context, the creation process of a mini biodiesel plant will be described. Recent Publications 1. BEGA, E.A. KOCH, R. FINKEL. V.S.etal.Industrial instrumentation. Publisher Interci´┐Żncia: IBP. 3rd Edition. Rio de Janeiro, 2011. 2. BRAFMAN, I. Econometric model for the projection of apparent fuel consumption in Brazil - otto and diesel. 2009. 103 f. Dissertation (Master degree) - Faculty of Economics and Finance Ibmec, Rio de Janeiro, 2009. 3. CONAB - NATIONAL COMPANY OF SUPPLY. Ethanol as a new universal fuel: statistical analysis and projection of domestic consumption and export of Brazilian ethyl alcohol from 2006 to 2011. Bras´┐Żlia, 2008. 4. D'AVILA, L. A. Limits of biodiesel production in Brazil. BIOCOM-4th national biofuels symposium. Chemical School of UFRJ, LABCOM-Laboratory of Fuels and Petroleum Derivatives. Rio de Janeiro, May 19 and 20, 2011 5. METROPOLITAN FACULTY OF CAMA??ARI. Pedagogical project of the control and automation engineering course. Cama´┐Żari, 2012. 182p

Biography:

Wen-Rong Xu has her expertise in chitin biomass conversion and applications, as well as organic synthesis and supramolecular chemistry. Her research group has successfully converted the chitin biomass into polyols through the simple and effective liquefaction method, and the resulting polyols were further used for the polymer modification. This research has opened a new way for the high-value added use of fishing industrial wastes.

Abstract:

To expand the applications of fishing industrial wastes, the liquefaction technique was employed to convert chitin and shrimp shells into liquids, which were first further used to for the modification of polymer materials. Ball-mill treated chitin and shrimp shells were effectively liquefied into polyols, namely LBMC and LBMS, respectively, by liquefaction technique. FTIR, NMR and GPC analyses of liquefied products turned out that depolymerization and deacetylation reactions occurred during liquefaction process. LBMC/PVA and LBMS/PVA blend membranes with various LBMC or LBMS content were prepared and characterized by FTIR and SEM investigation. In addition, tensile strength, elongation at break, water content, degradation and antibacterial properties were thoroughly discussed. The mechanical property and thermal stability were greatly enhanced under the optimal optimized conditions of 0.6 wt% incorporation of liquefied chitin incorporation to PVA. In particular, the antibacterial activity was obviously improved after the incorporation of LBMC or LBMS. Recent Publications 1. Jie Zhang, Wen-Rong Xu, Yu-Cang Zhang, Wei Li Jia-Dan Hu, Feng-Yi Zheng, Yang-Tian Wu (2018) Liquefied chitin/polyvinyl alcohol based blend membranes: preparation and characterization and antibacterial activity. Carbohydrate Polymers 180: 175-181. 2. Wen-Rong Xu, Guang-Jie Xia, Hak-Fun Chow, Xiao-Ping Cao, Dietmar Kuck (2015) Facile assembly of chiral metallosquares by using enantiopure tribenzotriquinacene corner motifs. Chemistry A European Journal 21(34): 12011-12017. 3. Wen-Rong Xu, Hak-Fun Chow, Xiao-Ping Cao, Dietmar Kuck (2014) Regiocontrolled synthesis and optical resolution of mono-, di-,and trisubstituted tribenzotriquinacene derivatives: key building blocks for further assembly into molecular squares and cubes. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 79(19):9335-9346. 4. Tao Wang, Yu-Fei Zhang, Qin-Qing Hou, Wen-Rong Xu, Xiao-Ping Cao, Hak-Fun Chow, Dietmar Kuck (2012) C3-symmetrical tribenzotriquinacene derivatives: optical resolution through cryptophane synthesis and supramolecular self-assembly into nanotubes. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 78(3):1062-1069.

Biography:

Chikako Asada has her expertise in biomass effective utilization and bioremediation. She has completed her Ph.D. from Kanazawa University and studied about biochemical engineering in Faculty of Bioscience & Bioindustry, Tokushima University. Currently she is studying on lignocellulosic biomass conversion technologies, with expertise in synthesis of renewable-based materials from cellulose and lignin from plant biomass.

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic biomass is made up three main component, i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and expected as an alternative resource of fossil resource. It is used to produce biofuels and biomaterials, and its increased use would lower environmental impacts such as the emission of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel depletion. In East Asia, disposable wooden chopsticks are used in restaurants, school cafeterias, and homes. The average annual amount of wooden chopsticks disposed of in Japan is about 90,000 t. Therefore, disposable wooden chopsticks can be considered as a promising candidate for raw materials of useful fuel and chemicals production. In this study the total biorefinary process of lignocellulosic biomass was developed using high temperature and pressure steaming and milling treatment (SM treatment). Biorefinery is a process that produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass using various pretreatment, extraction, separation, and conversion methods. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. We evaluated the efficient separation and utilization of woody structural components from waste BODE chopsticks by using SM treatment followed by water and acetone extractions. The water soluble material was converted into methane or functional food ingredients. Acetone soluble material (Low molecular weight lignin, Mn 1300, Mw 4300) was used as not only a raw material for the synthesis of lignin epoxy resin but also curing agent for curing reaction of epoxy resin. Residue after water and acetone extractions (Mainly cellulose component) was converted into methane or cellulose nanofiber. Furthermore, the mechanical and thermal properties of cured lignin epoxy resin and cellulose nanofiber were evaluated. As a result, we could show the mass balance of extracted and separated components from SM treated waste BODE chopsticks (Figure 1). Recent Publications 1. Asada C, Sasaki C, Takamatsu Y, Nakamura Y (2015) Conversion of steam-exploded cedar into ethanol using simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification process. Bioresource Technology 176: 203-209. 2. Asada C, Basnet S, Otsuka T, Sasaki C, Nakamura Y (2015) Epoxy resin synthesis using low molecular weight lignin separated from various lignocellulosic materials. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 74: 413-419. 3. Asada C, Sasaki C, Hirano T, Nakamura Y (2015) Chemical characteristics and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass treated using high-temperature saturated steam: Comparison of softwood and Hardwood. Bioresource Technology 182: 245-250. 4. Sasaki C, Yoshida Y, Asada C, Nakamura Y (2016) Total utilization of Japanese pear tree prunings: Extraction of arbutin and production of bioethanol. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 18: 385-292. 5. Suzuki A, Sasaki C, Asada C, Nakamura Y (2017) Characterization of cellulose nanofiber from steam-exploded Japanese cedar. BioResource 12: 7628-7641.

Young-Lok Cha

Bioenergy Crop Research Institute, National Institute of Crop Science, Republic of KOREA

Title: Improved Production of Cellulosic Bioethanol using Miscanthus Hydrolysate by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biography:

Young-Lok Cha was a doctorate at the University of Hannover in Germany. He is working as a senior researcher at the National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration in Korea and his major is the development of lignocellulosic biomass conversion technology and biofuels production at pilot scale.

Abstract:

In order to industrialize bioethanol based on cellulosic biomass, securing economic efficiency is very important. Until now, fermentation using glucose converted from cellulose through pretreatment and saccharification process was mainly performed, resulting in economically lower efficiency. The industrialization of strains capable of metabolizing xylose produced from cellulosic biomass was insufficient. Recently, an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed for the effective bioethanol production. In this study, the yield of ethanol production was investigated using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of xylose metabolism. The raw materials was pretreated with a twin-screw extrusion reactor under conditions: 0.5 M NaOH 27 L/h, biomass feeding 4.5 kg/h at 99???. The production of substrates for the ethanol fermentation was produced 120 g / L of glucose and 40 g / L of xylose through alkaline pretreatment and saccharifica-tion. In result, 65 g/L of ethanol in 48 h from Miscanthus hydrolysate was obtained using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of xylose metabolism. In conclusion, the yield of ethanol production was improved 40% from 46 g/L to 65 g/L with same substrate. Recent Publications 1. Young-lok Cha, Jungwoo Yang, Yuri Park, Gi Hong An, Jong-woong Ahn, Youn-ho Moon, Young-mi Yoon, Gyeong-dan u, In-hu Choi (2015) Continuous alkaline pretreatment of Miscanthus sacchariflorus using a benchscale single screw reactor. Bioresource Technology 181:338-344. 2. Young-lok Cha, Jungwoo Yang, Sun-il Seo, Gi Hong An, Youn-ho Moon, Gyeong-dan Yu, Ji-Eun Lee, Jong-woong Ahn, Kyeong-Bo Lee(2016) Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment of Miscanthus with recycled black liquor at the pilot scale. Fuel 164:322-328. 3. Yamada R., Taniguchi N., TanakaT., Ogino C., Fukuda H., Kondo A. (2011) Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials using a diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with optimized cellulose exprestion. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 4:1-9. 4. Kim S. R., Park, Y.C., Jin Y.S., Seo J.H. (2013) Strain engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced xylose metabolism. Biotechnol. Adv. 31:851-861. 5. Ye-Gi Lee, Yong-su Jin, Young-lok Cha, Jin-ho Seo (2017) Bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysates by engineered industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresocurce Technology 228:355-361.

Biography:

Kurt D. Thelen, is a Professor at Michigan State University, USA. Dr. Thelen’s research is focused on cropping systems agronomy with an emphasis on bioenergy and developing crop systems that increase food, feed, and energy production while safeguarding soil, air, water, and biodiversity.

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of winter cereal cover crops with corn stover to improve biomass and potential bioethanol yield. Cropping systems evaluated included 1) a corn stover experimental check; 2) early spring harvest of winter cereal???s following a fall corn stover harvest; and 3) mixed stands of corn stover and winter cereals harvested together. Two winter cereals; cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), and triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) were evaluated and no winter cereal crop was used as the experimental control). Two harvest time factors were evaluated including; a two-harvest system (fall followed by spring), and a one-harvest system (fall or spring). Spring-harvested corn stover ethanol content [EtOH] was the greatest (0.201 g g-1) followed by spring-harvested mixed feedstocks of rye + stover (0.175 g g-1) and triticale + stover (0.180 g g-1). Ethanol yield on a land area basis (L ha-1) decreased by 47% when stover-only feedstock was harvested in the spring compared to the fall. When only considering a single harvest system, incorporation of a winter cereal did improve ethanol yield by 242 L ha-1 at spring harvest. The two-harvest sequential system of a fall stover harvest followed by a spring, winter cereal harvest was the most productive with 41.8% greater ethanol yield when compared to the single harvest. Overall, the incorporation of a winter annual cereal with corn stover improved biomass and ethanol yield relative to stover-only feedstocks. Recent Publications 1. Jean, M., K.D. Thelen, M. Quigley, D. Pennington. 2017. Improving biomass and ethanol yield by intercropping a winter cereal with corn. Agron J. 109:1-7 2. Robertson, G. Philip, Stephen K. Hamilton, Bradford L. Barham, Bruce E. Dale, R. Cesar Izaurralde, Randall D. Jackson, Douglas A. Landis, Scott M. Swinton, Kurt D. Thelen, James M. Tiedje. 2017. Cellulosic Biofuel Contributions to a Sustainable Energy Future: Choices and Outcomes. Science 356, eaal2324 (2017). 3. Sanford, G. R., Jackson, R. D., Oates, L. G., Robertson, G. P., Roley, S. S., & Thelen, K. D. (2017). Biomass production a stronger driver of cellulosic ethanol yield than biomass quality. Agron. J. 109:1911-1922. Laurenz, R., P. Tumbalam, S. Naeve, and K.D. Thelen. 2017. 4. Determination of isoflavone (genistein and daidzein) concentration of soybean seed as affected by environment and management inputs. J. Sci. Food Agric. Volume 97:10:3342???3347. 5. Tumbalam, P., K. Hard and K.D. Thelen 2016: Integrating winter annual cereal rye or triticale into a corn forage biofuel production system, Journal of Crop Improvement, 30:5:526-530.

Biography:

Sid Ahmed Kessas is a second year PhD student working on thermal & chemical conversion of wastes in fluidized bed reactors.

Abstract:

In this study, the pyrolysis of dry aerobic sewage sludge was carried out under nitrogen inert atmosphere in a dense fluidized bed reactor (2.5 m height, 0.214 m inner diameter). Firstly, the effects of pyrolysis temperature between 700 and 830´┐ŻC on product distributions in terms of syngas, liquid and char and the gas composition were investigated. Results indicate that the increase of temperature leads to an increase in syngas yield and a decrease in tar yield. However, the char amount is not affected by temperature beyond 700´┐ŻC. The gas composition is strongly changed by temperature. H2/CO ratio increases from 1.15 at 700´┐ŻC to 1.53 at 830´┐ŻC. In addition, these runs were compared to experiments performed during pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasses (oak, pine and beach sawdust). Results show that the syngas yield produced with sewage sludge is comparable to that obtained with woody biomasses (0.57 Nm3/kg daf, B at 800´┐ŻC). The syngas composition is strongly affected by the nature and the composition of waste. The low oxygen content in the sewage sludge leads to the formation of a syngas rich in H2, CH4, and C2Hx with a H2/CO ratio higher than that obtained with woody wastes. The tar yield produced using sewage sludge (294 g/kg daf, B) is much more important than that obtained with woody wastes (60 g/kg daf, B for beech sawdust). According to these results, we proposed a pyrolysis reaction scheme by estimating stoichiometric coefficients related to different pyrolysis products. Finally, pyrolysis run carried out at 830´┐ŻC was compared with another test performed under steam atmosphere. Results show that the presence of steam in reactor increases syngas yield & H2/CO ratio from 0.65 to 0.88 Nm3/kg daf and 1.53 to 2.02 respectively which reduces four times the tar yield. These results can be explained by concentration or steam partial pressure effect on tar reforming and water-gas shift reactions. Recent Publications 1. Nipattummakul N, Ahmed II, Kerdsuwan S and Gupta A K (2010) Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35(21):11738???45. 2. Gomez-Barea A, Nilsson S, Vidal Barrero F and Campoy M (2010) Devolatilization of wood and wastes in fluidized bed. Fuel Processing Technology 91(11):1624???33. 3. Liu H, Hu H, Luo G, Li A, Xu M, Yao H (2013) Enhancement of hydrogen production in steam gasification of sewage sludge by reusing the calcium in lime-conditioned sludge. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 38(3):1332???41. 4. Jaramillo-Arango A, Fonts I, Chejne F and Arauzo J (2016) Product compositions from sewage sludge pyrolysis in a fluidized bed and correlations with temperature. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 121:287???96. 5. Fonts I, Azuara M, Gea G and Murillo M B (2009) Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 85(1???2):184???91.

Biography:

Yuya Sakurai of Kogakuin University, Tokyo with expertise in Chemical Engineering.

Abstract:

In order to suppress greenhouse gas emission and avoid global warming, utilization of biomass energy as a substitute for fossil fuels has attracted attention in recent years due to its renewability and carbon neutrality. Biomass gasification and pyrolysis has been investigated as one of the technologies for efficiently utilization of biomass energy. However, gasification characteristics of biomass varies according to the types of that. It is necessary to clarify the gasification characteristics of biomass due to practical use of various biomass. Here, the effects of various biomass on gasification behaviors are discussed. In this study, pyrolysis and gasification experiments were carried out using a batch type tubular reactor. Cedar and cypress of coniferous trees, eucalyptus of hardwood and bamboo of grass-type biomass were used as biomass feedstock. These biomass were pulverized and sieved to 0.5 to 1 mm. The sample was put on the ceramics boat and installed in the reactor. The reaction temperature was electrically controlled and set from 600 to 900 oC. The reaction atmosphere was inert only or both inert and steam, and the products were removed from the reactor by carrier gases. The experimental results showed that each biomass species had a different characteristic of gasification. The yields of char produced from the broadleaf eucalyptus and the grass-type biomass bamboo were higher than these of the coniferous wood. This tendency was common in all experimental conditions. The gas yield of bamboo was the lowest result in all biomass feedstocks. For all biomass, on the other hand, the gas yields increased and the tar yields decreased by the addition of steam. Especially improvement of the hydrogen yields was remarkable. It was suggested that steam reforming of the tar was promoted under the atmosphere containing water vapor. Recent Publications 1. Tian Tian, Qinghai Li, Rong He, Zhongchao Tan, Yanguo Zhang (2017) Effect of biochemical composition on hydorogen production by biomass gasification. International journal of hydrogen energy 42:19723-19732 2. Dangzhen Lv, Minghou Xu, Xiaowei Liu, Zhonghua Zhan, Zhiyuan Li, Hong Yao (2010) Effect of cellulose, lignin, alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Fuel Processing Technology 91:903-909 3. Asri Gani, Ichiro Naruse (2007) Effect of cellulose and lignin content on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics for several types of biomass. Renewable Energy 32:649-661 4. Toshiaki Hanaoka, Seiichi Inoue, Seiji Uno, Tomoko Ogi, Tomoaki Minowa (2005) Effect of woody biomass components on air-steam gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy 28:69-76 5. C. Franco, F. Pinto, I. Gulyurtlu, I. Cabrita (2003) The study of reaction influencing the biomass steam gasification process. Fuel 82:835-842.

Martin Stas

University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Czech Republic

Title: Chemical Characterization of Bio-oils from Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin Pyrolysis
Biography:

Martin Staš obtained his MSc. degree in Analytical chemistry in 2011 and Ph.D. in Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Environment in 2015 at the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague (UCTP). Since 2014, he has been working as a scientific co-worker at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels at UCTP. For four years, he also worked for Research Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (UniCRE) Ústí nad Labem. His main research areas are Biofuels, Pyrolysis Bio-oil Characterization and Petroleomics. Martin Staš is author or co-author of about ten papers published in impact journals and author or co-author of about ten other papers published in peer-reviewed journals or conference proceedings.

Abstract:

Pyrolysis bio-oils are promising renewable feedstock that can be used as biofuels and for the production of valuable oxygencontaining chemicals. A more widespread use of bio-oils from a lignocellulosic biomass requires more detailed knowledge of their composition. In this work, we prepared bio-oils via the pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (i.e. main building blocks of lignocellulose). For the obtained bio-oils, we performed analyses of basic physical and chemical properties and a comprehensive chemical characterization also. The results obtained for these structurally less complex bio-oils can be helpful to understand the chemical composition of whole bio-oils in more detail. Recent Publications 1. Sta?, M., Kubi?ka, D., Chudoba, J., and Posp´┐Ż?il, M.: Overview of Analytical Methods Used for Chemical Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-oils. Energy & Fuels 2014, 28, 385-402. 2. Sta?, M., Chudoba, J., Kubi?ka, D., and Posp´┐Ż?il, M.: Chemical Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-oil: Application of Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Energy & Fuels 2015, 29, 3233-3240. 3. Sta?, M., Chudoba, J., Auersvald, M., Kubi?ka, D., Conrad, S., Schulzke, T., and Posp´┐Ż?il, M.: Application of orbitrap mass spectrometry for analysis of model bio-oil compounds and fast pyrolysis bio-oils from different biomass sources. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2017, 124, 230-238. 4. Stas??, M., Chudoba, J., Kubic??ka, D., Blaz??ek, J., and Pospi?s?? il, M.: Petroleomic Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-oils: A Review. Energy & Fuels 2017, 31, 10283-10299. 5. Kochetkova, D., Bla?ek, J., ?im´┐Ż?ek, P., Sta?, M., and Be??o, Z.: Influence of rapeseed oil hydrotreating on hydrogenation activity of CoMo catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology 2016, 142, 319-325.

Biography:

I have a degree in Agronomy and a master’s degree in Natural Resource Management. As an employee of the University of Zambezi, in recent years, in addition to coordinating the research and extension sector in the Tete delegation, I participated in the elaboration of projects for the sustainable management of natural resources and agricultural production to improve the problems of child malnutrition in some regions of Mozambique. At this moment I am coordinator of the project to create the Laboratory of Geoprocessing and laboratory evaluation and promotion of environmental health, and as a doctoral student in Bioenergy, I am evaluating the phytoremediation potential of contaminated soils using energy crops.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: The increasing demand for biomass for the production of bioenergy is generating land-use conflicts which might be avoided through the establishment of dedicated energy crops on marginal land, e.g. heavy-metal contaminated land. Indeed, heavy metals contaminated soils might cause marginality of soils through the degradation of their quality, inducing the reduction of crop yields and the quality of agricultural products, desertification, and the loss of ecosystem services. But assessment of bioenergy from marginal land should take into account constraining factors, such as productivity and biomass quality. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of soils contaminated with heavy metals on growth and productivity of kenaf, a fiber crop with potential to be used as a feedstock for bioenergy and biomaterials. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The effects of different heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) on growth, productivity and biomass quality of kenaf was evaluated in a pot essay. Plants were tested under different levels of contamination: no contamination (0), low level of contamination (L) and high level of contamination (H). The low levels of contamination tested were chosen based on the Portuguese Decree Law 276/2009 that indicates limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in soil (Cd: 4 mg/kg, Cu: 300 mg/kg, Pb: 450 mg/kg, Zn: 450 mg/kg). The high level of contamination was twice this limit values. Findings: yields were not significantly affected by contamination. Yet, biomass from contaminated pots showed higher ash content and heavy metals content which can be detrimental for its valorization. Conclusion & Significance: Overall, kenaf showed high tolerance to soil contamination and biomass can be used for bioenergy and biomaterials although its quality may hinder its valorization options.

Biography:

Irene Malpartida has her expertise in heterogeneous catalysis and biodiesel production for more than 15 years. She has worked in design, processing and evaluation of novel catalysts and processes for applications in the automobile industrial market to achieve the future European Standards for the air quality; Hydrogen production; oxidation of HCs and Biodiesel production. She develops the reactivity Set-up to work in real conditions and novelty work conditions to join fundamental research with the needs of industrial partners as Renault, PSA, Ford. Nowadays, she joins a research of valorization of Biomass developing sustainable industrial production of biofuels, biogas and other products from microalgae and residual oils in collaboration with Dr. Pedro Maireles (University of Málaga) and DEASYL S.A. DEASYL is a Swiss company based in Geneva; it is an international supplier of technologies and catalysts for petrochemical industry. Our mission is to provide innovative solutions to produce eco-responsible green biodiesel.

Abstract:

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) produced from vegetable oil by transesterification, labeled as ??????Biodiesel???, is industrially accomplished in the presence of a homogeneous basic catalyst, such as alkali hydroxide or methoxide dissolved in methanol. This process requires a large excess of methanol (methanol:oil molar ratio> 6), temperature around 60 ´┐ŻC and 1-2 h of reaction [1]. However, this process suffers from important drawbacks: low FFA and water tolerance, generation of process wastewater, etc. To overcome them, different approaches have been proposed: such as the use of heterogeneous catalysis, CO2 under supercritical conditions or enzymes; coupled to microwave and ultrasonics systems as an alternative to conventional heating [2-3]. Among all the researches, heterogeneous catalysts show potential in the transesterification reaction. Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous ones are environmentally benign and can be reused and regenerated. Nevertheless, higher catalyst loading and alcohol:oil molar ratio are required for biodiesel production in the presence of solid catalysts [4]. Methodology & Results: A new mechanochemical reactor is used for the transesterification reaction to promotes the reactants mixing, minimizing mass transfer limitations associated to the inmiscibility of reactants. This solution allows to reduce the methanol need to an amount close to the stoichiometry (methanol:oil molar ratio= 4:1), and at room temperature after less than one minute, more than 90 wt% FAME is reached [5]. Findings: Glycerol, obtained as by-product in the transesterification reaction is used to prepare calcium diglyceroxide by mechanosynthesis, and is used as heterogeneous catalyst. A new and more efficient mechanochemical synthesis of FAME is proposed, with shorter reaction and lower temperature [6], compared to other synthesis proposed in literature [7]. Significance: A new, smart and efficient process for biodiesel production was developed, without waste generation (no water, nearly no excess of methanol), with valorization of glycerol for catalyst synthesis, under very low energy consumption conditions. Recent Publications 1. B. Freedman, E.H. Pryde, T.L. Mounts, Variables affecting the yield of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oil, JAOCS 61 (1984) 1638???1643. 2. Juan Miguel Rubio-Caballero, Jose Santamar?a-Gonzalez, Josefa Merida-Robles, Ramon Moreno-Tost, Antonio Jimenez- Lopez, Pedro Maireles-Torres, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 91 (2009) 339???346. 3. Ana C. Alba-Rubio, Jose Santamar?a-Gonzalez, Josefa M. Me rida-Robles, Ramon Moreno-Tost, David Mart?n-Alonso, Antonio Jimenez-Lopez, Pedro Maireles-Torres, Catalysis Today 149 (2010) 281???287 4. Ferenc E. Kiss, Milenko Jovanovi, Goran C. Bo?kovi??, Fuel Processing Technology 91 (2010) 1316???1320 5. Patent new biodiesel process - WO2018002559: Method for producing fatty acid esters and glycerol at low temperature.

Biography:

Mirit has completed her M.Sc. at the age of 32 years from Ariel University, Ariel University, Israel. She started her Ph.D. in the 2016. She is on her second year as Ph.D. student. her research under the direction of Prof. Marina Nisnevitch, head of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Faina Nakunchani Senior Staff, is devoted to the innovative development of continuous production of biodiesel by chemical reactions (esterification and transformation with a solid heterogeneous catalyst or dissolved gaseous catalyst in liquid phase with its separation at the exit from the reactor and its recycling for reuse).

Abstract:

The dramatic increase in oil prices, in spite of transient decreases, and global climate changes, affected by a rise in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, have led to a need in alternative energy sources. Reducing dependence on fossil fuels could decrease concerns about energy security. For these reasons, a quest for sustainable and renewable biofuels has been gaining momentum in recent years, and bioenergy in general and renewable biofuels in particular are attracting increasing attention as a part of a trend to develop a sustainable and environmentally friendly economy. The present study is focused on development of a scheme for continuous biodiesel production from cooking oil waste - brown grease. This scheme will enable to solve two problems: energetic and environmental. Brown grease has high free fatty acid content and therefore can serve as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. First, a protocol for separation of a fat layer from brown grease wastes was elaborated, and then conditions for an effective esterification reaction were chosen when heating was replaced by an ultrasonic activation. At each experimental stage samples were tested by HPLC. The results show that efficient separation of the fat layer from brown grease can be obtained under heating the wastes at 60´┐ŻC for 15 min and following centrifugation at RCF 3,750 g for 5 minutes. The ultrasonic activation is expecting to serve as a basis for development of an innovative and efficient and biodiesel production in a continuous regime. Recent Publications 1. Barbosa, S.L., Dabdoub, M.J., Hurtado, G.R., Klein, S.I., Baroni, A.C.M., Cunha, C., 2006. Solvent Free Esterification Reactions using Lewis Acids in Solid Phase Catalysis. Appl. Catal. A Gen. 313, 146???150. 2. Cintas, P., Mantegna, S., Gaudino, E.C., Cravotto, G., 2010. A New Pilot Flow Reactor for High-Intensity Ultrasound Irradiation. Application to the Synthesis of Biodiesel. Ultrason. Sonochem. 17, 985???989. 3. Pittman, J.K., Dean, A.P., Osundeko, O., 2011. The Potential of Sustainable Algal Biofuel Production Using Wastewater Resources. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 17???25. 4. Salamatinia, B., Abdullah, A.Z., Bhatia, S., 2012. Quality Evaluation of Biodiesel Produced through Ultrasound-Assisted Heterogeneous Catalytic System. Fuel Process. Technol. 97, 1???8. 5. Wirasnita, R., Hadibarata, T., Novelina, Y.M., Yusoff, A.R.M., Yusop, Z., 2013. A modified methylation method to determine fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34, 3239???3242.

Biography:

Richard Ahorsu is currently a PhD student at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira I Virgili University. His research is focused on transformation of biomass into value added chemicals. At the present, he adopted simple and cost efficient autohydrolysis technique to convert walnut shell into xylose and glucose followed by batch fermentation to obtain L-lactic acid. He obtained his Master’s degree in Nanoscience, Materials and Processes in URV. During his Master’s degree he intensively investigated hydrogen evolution through water splitting mechanism by employing electrospun photocatalyst.

Abstract:

Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to renewable and valuable chemicals has attracted global attention because it is a better alternative pathway to reverse the negative environmental impact and ultimately build up a sustainable society. Lactic acid has become a valuable chemical due to its versatile application in the food, medical, and cosmetics industries and as raw material for the manufacture of biodegradable plastics. Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for lactic acid production considering its abundance and low cost compared to refined sugars. In this study, autohydrolysis of the amorphous region of cellulose and hemicellulose in the walnut shell through microwave-assisted reaction at selected temperature ranges (150oc, 170oc, and 190oc) with the residence time (20 min, 40 min, 60 min) were investigated. The corresponding severity factor of the hydrolysis was calculated. At a reaction condition of 190oC, 20 min, a maximum theoretical yield of 98% of xylose and 21.6% of glucose was obtained. Subsequently, the obtained hydrolysate from the maximum yield was converted to optically pure L-lactic acid. This was achieved by using inhibitor resilient bacteria Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. This bacterium converted the higher amount of xylose from the hemicellulose to an optically pure L-lactic acid with a considerable utilization of the glucose present in the hydrolysate into optically pure L-lactic acid. Recent Publications 1. G´┐Żell E J, Maru B T, Chimentao R J, Gispert-Girado F, Constant´┐Ż M and Medina F (2015) Combined heterogeneous catalysis and dark fermentation systems for the conversion of cellulose into biohydrogen. Biochemical Engineering Journal 101:209- 219. 2. Gavil´┐Ż L, Constant´┐Ż M and Medina F (2015) D-lactic acid production from cellulose: dilute acid treatment of cellulose assisted by microwave followed by microbial fermentation. Cellulose 22:3089-3098. 3. Gavil´┐Ż L, G´┐Żell E J, Maru B T, Medina F and Constant´┐Ż M (2017) Combining catalytical and biological processes to transform cellulose into high value-added products. Physical Sciences Reviews DOI: 10.1515/psr-2017-0026. 4. Ye L, Zhou X, Hudari M.S, Li Z and Wu J (2013) Highly efficient production of L-lactic acid from Xylose by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans C106. Bioresource Technology 132:38-44. 5. Toor S S, Rosendahl L and Rudolf A (2011) Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: a review of subcritical water technologies. Energy 36:2328-2342.

John Ryan

University of Nottingham, UK

Title: Tuning biomass pyrolysis for polymer precursors
Biography:

Originally from Lincolnshire, UK. John is currently a second year PhD student as part of the Centre for Doctoral Training in sustainable chemistry based in the University of Nottingham’s Carbon Neutral Laboratory.

Abstract:

All humans must reduce their dependency on fossil fuels. Just as polymers are a big part of modern life, so too crude oil is a big part of these polymers. Current estimates are that in order to produce a one litre water bottle, 250 mL of crude oil is consumed in heating, transport and raw material use.[1] Pyrolysis of biomass is a route to chemicals useful in applications similar to those derived from fossil fuels. Microwave pyrolysis allows more accurate and precise temperature control throughout the reaction. This improved temperature control allows more selective pyrolysis, yielding distinct aqueous and organic phases with partitioning of the pyrolysis products. These products have potential as feedstock for goods we use daily, and have undergone a primary separation during the microwave pyrolysis process itself. Characterisation and subsequent derivatisation of the aqueous and organic phases from microwave pyrolysis are outlined and compared to that of conventional pyrolysis methods.